Colorblindness: Red-Green Colorblindness

Colorblindness is the total inability or reduced capacity to distinguish between different colors under average lighting conditions. The term colorblindness refers to impairment of color vision but not actual blindness. Colorblindness is highly sex-linked and affects the larger percentage of males than females in a typical population. This is because the genes that generate photopigments are found on the X chromosome; the absence or damaged genes will therefore result to colorblindness in males in a higher proportion since males only have one X chromosome. The cause of this condition is via development of a single or multiple arrays of retinal cones that identifies color in light and relays the information to the optic nerve system. Scientist have also discovered that colorblindness can be chemical or physical damage of optic nerve. Nearly 8% of the male population and 4.5% of UK’s population are colorblind (Franzco, Tong, Zhang, & Ee-Ling, 2008). The Red-Green colorblind is highly dominant hence posing the question of what complementary variation of red and green colors are colorblind people, able to differentiate.

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Purpose of research question
 

The research question which states “what complementary variation of Red and Green colors, colorblind people are able to differentiate” seeks to identify the alternative colors that Red-Green colorblind people can distinguish clearly under normal light conditions. Ophthalmologists have identified magenta and turquoise to be complementary colors to replace red and green respectively.
Map/Pattern

1. The X-linked Red-Green Colorblindness is more dominant in males than females.
Franzco, A., Tong, L., Zhang, X., & Ee-Ling, S. (2008). Red-Green Color Blindness in Singaporean Children. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology; 36, 464-467.
The above journal substantiated the fact that Red-Green colorblindness affect nearly 8% of men and a decimal 0.1% of women. Study was conducted among 1249 Singaporean children aged 13-15 years using Ishihara 24 plate edition book. The results found indicated that 5.3% of boys and 0.2% of girls were found to be red-green colorblind in Singapore
2. Are health conditions such as the type 2 diabetes or fasting likely to impair color vision?
Shoji, T., Sakurai, Y., & Sato, H. (2011). Do type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy or subjects with impaired fasting Glucose have impaired Color Vision? The Okubo Color study report. Diabetic Medicine, 864-870.
The above scientists carried out investigations to identify associations between health conditions and color vision impairments. They chose type-2 diabetes and glucose fasting. All participants for the study were males aged 20-60 years. The findings indicated that there was dramatic increase in prevalence of acquired color vision impairments in type 2 diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy.
3. Is there association between colorblindness and psychological well-being?
Jue, J., & Seok-man, K. (2013). Does colour say something about emotions?: Laypersons’ assessments of colour drawings. Arts in Psychotherapy, Vol. 40, 115-119.
The above scientists conducted a study to examine if colorblindness is prone to people with psychological conditions as compared to psychologically healthy people. Drawings were chromatically and achromatically presented to participants. The results was that correct answers were given by both psychologically ill participants and those who were healthy when colors were presented in chromatic condition. However, when color artworks were presented in achromatic conditions, errors increased on people with psychological conditions. This study showed that color can be effective in estimating psychological states.
4. Red-Green color vision defects does not discriminate ethnic background or race
Karim, K., & Saleem, M. (2013). Prevalence of Congenital Red-Green Color Vision Defects among Various Ethnic Groups of Students in Erbil City. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences. Vol. 6, 235-238.
There have been reports that incidences of colorblindness varies from race to race, however this has not been supported by any document. The study conducted in Jordan showed that students in college and secondary schools from different races and ethnic background showed no differences in colorblindness.

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